Document Type : Research Paper
1 Assistant Professor of Sport Management, University of Isfahan
2 Ph. D Student of Sport Management, University of Isfahan
The purpose of this research was to determine of relationship between the role of significant others and adolescents' participation in physical activity and sport and presenting the model. The research method was descriptive in the type of correlational. The statistical population of research was the adolescents of 12 to 18-year- old of Zarinshahr. Using Krejcie and Morgan Table 381 person were selected by Stratified random sampling. The research tool was international physical activity questionnaire and researcher made questionnaire of the role of significant others. The validity of international physical activity questionnaire was approved in internal and external researches. The validity of significant others questionnaire was confirmed by exact investigation of research literature and by considering of professors and experts opinion (10 person). The questionnaire’s construct validity also, using appropriate statistical methods was approved. The reliability of questionnaires was investigated in a pilot study through Cronbach's alpha and reliability coefficient of international physical activity questionnaire .92 and significant others roles questionnaire .94 was calculated. To analyze the data, the methods of descriptive and inferential statistics were used. The results showed that there was a relationship between the role of significant others and physical activity level and adolescents' participation in sport. Also, the supporter role of parents, role model of peer and coaction role of teachers had the highest correlation with the level of physical activity, and encourager role of parents, role model of peer and coaction of teachers had the highest correlation with adolescence’s participation in sport. Finally, the results of research model testing showed teachers had the greatest impact on adolescents' participation in physical activity and sport, and after that were peers and parents.
- Anderson, S. M., & Chen, S. (2002). The relational self: An interpersonal social- cognitive theory. Psychological Review, 109(4), 619-45.
- Bradley, R. H., McRitchie, S., Houts, R. M., Nader, P., O'Brien, M., & NICHD Early Child Care Res Network (2011). Parenting and the decline of physical activity from age 9 to 15. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 8(1), 1-10.
- Bandura, A. (1997). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs. NJ: Prentice-Hall, بخش of Psychology, Stanford University, 33-4.
- Berger, I. E, O’ Reilly, N, Parent, M. M., Seguin, B. & Hernandez, T. (2008). Determinants of Sport Participation among Canadian Adolescents, Sport Management Review, 11(3), 277-307.
- Bieg, S., Backes, S., & Mittag, W. (2011), The role of intrinsic motivation for teaching, teachers’ care and autonomy support in students’ self- determined motivation, Journal for Educational Research Online, 3(1), 122-40.
- Brustad, R. J. (2010). The role of family in promoting physical activity. President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports Research Digest, 10(3), 1-8.
- Bungum, T. j., & Vincent, M. (1997). Determinants of Physical activity among Adolescent Females, American Journal of Preventative medicine, 13(2), 115-22.
- Carr, S., and Weigand, D. A. (2001). Parental, peer, teacher and sporting hero influence on the goal orientations of children in physical education, European Physical Education Review, 7(3), 305-28.
- Casey, M. M., Eime, R. M., Panyne, W. R., & Harvey, J. T. (2009). Using a socio ecological approach to examine participation in sport and physical activity among rural adolescent girls. Qualitative Health Research, 19(7), 881-93.
- Chogahara, M. O’ Brien Cousins, S., & Wankel, L.M. (1998). Social influences on physical activity on older adults: a review, Journal of Aging and physical activity, 6, 1-17.
- Cox, A. E., Ullrich-french, S. (2010). The motivational relevance of peer and teacher relationship profiles in Physical education. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11(5), 337-44.
- Dishman, R. K., Buckworth, J. (1996). increasing physical activity: a quantitative synthesis, Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 28(6), 706-19.
- Eyler, A. A., Brownson, R. C., King, A. C., Brown, D., & Heath, G. (1997). Physical activity and women in the United States: An overview of health benefits, prevalence and intervention opportunities. Women and Health. 26(3), 27-49.
- Gustafson, S. L., Rhodes, R. E. (2006). Parental correlates of physical activity in children and early adolescents. Sports med. 36(1), 79-97.
- Greendorfer, S. L. (1992). Sport socialization. In T.S. Horn (Ed.), Advances in sport psychology (Pp. 201-18). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
- Greenockle, K. M., Lee, A. A., & Lomax, R. (1990).The relationships between selected student characteristics and activity patterns in a required high school physical education class. Research Quarterly for Exercise and sport, 61(1), 59-69.
- Haller, A. O., & Woelfel, J. (1972). Significant others and their expectations: concepts and instruments to measure interpersonal influence on status aspirations, Reprinted from Rural Sociology, 37(4), 591-622.
- Harrell, J. S., Pearce, P. F., Markland, E. T., Wilson, k., Bradley, C. B. (2003). Assessing physical activity in adolescents: common activities of children in 6th-8th grades. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners. 15(4), 170-78.
- Harris, C. J. (1991). The reform of women’s intercollegiate athletics: Title IX Equal protection, and supplemental methods. Capital university law Review, 20, 690-721.
- Hinkley, K., & Andersen, S. M. (1996). The working self-concept in transference: Significant-other activation and self-change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71(6), 1279-95.
- Hoseini, V., Anoosheh, M., Abbaszadeh, A., and Ehsani, M. (2013). The Perception of adolescent girls and their parents of family role in shaping physical activity behavior in girls. Journal of Growth of Sport-Motor Learning, 13, 61-77 (Persian).
- Kashef, M. M., and Seyedameri, M. H. (2013). The investigate of unmotivated causes of high school students to participate in school physical education activities, Journal of Physical Education Teaching, 13(3), 32-7 (Persian).
- Lasheras, L., Aznar, S., Merino, B., Lopez, E. G. (2001). Factors associated with physical activity among Spanish youth through the national health survey. Prev Med: 32(6), 455-64.
- Marques, A., Andri, J., Martins, J., Sarmento, H., Diniz, J. (2014). The prevalence of sedentary behaviors and physical activity of urban adolescents, A cross-sectional study using ecological momentary assessment, Mitteilungen Klosterneuburg, 64, 427-35.
- Morrissy, J. L., Wenthe, p. J., Letuchy, E. M., Levy, S. M., Janz, K. F. (2012). Specific types of family support and adolescent non-school physical activity levels, Pediatric Exercise Science, 24, 333-46.
- Parsamehr, M., Balgoriyan, M., and Saidimadani, M. (2013). The relationship between the components of social capital and sports participation among adolescent, sport management, 5(2), 109-27 (Persian).
- Puyal, S., Casterad, Z., & Lanaspa, G. (2013). Influences from significant others for physical activity practice in teenagers. Revista Internacional de Medicina, 10(10), 1-20.
- Rezaeepor, A., Yosefi, F., Mahmodi, M., and Shakeri, M. (1386). The relationship between eating behaviors and physical activity in adolescent girls with their perceptions of their parent lifestyle, Hyat Journal, 13(3), 17-25. (Persian).
- Sallis, J. F., Prochaska, J. J., & Taylor, W. C. (2000). A review of correlates of physical activity of children and adolescents, Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 32(5), 963-75.
- Salvy, S. J., Roemmich, J. N., Bowker, J. C., Romero, N. D., Stadler, P. J., Epstein, L. H. (2009). Effect of Peers and Friends on Youth Physical Activity and Motivation to be Physically Active, Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 34(2), 217–25.
- Saxena, R. Borzekowski, D. L. G., & Rickert, V. I. (2002). Physical activity levels among urban adolescent females. Journal of pediatric Adolescent Gynecology, 15(5), 279-84.
- Snyder, E. E., & Spreitzer, E. (1983). Social aspect of sport, Englewood cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 89.
- Smith, R. E., & Johnson, J. (1990). An organizational empowerment approach to consultation in professional baseball, The Sport Psychologist, 4, 347-57.
- Steinberger, J., Moorehead, C., Katch, V., & Rocchini, A. P. (1995). Relationship between insulin resistance and abnormal lipid profile in obese adolescents, Journal of Pediatr, 126(5), 690-5.
- The WHOQOL Group. (1995). The World Health Organization, Quality of life Assessment (WHOQOL): Position paper from the World Health Organization, Social Science & Medicine, 41(10), 1403–9.
- Vahyda, F., Areyzi, F., and Parsamehr, M. (2006). The effect of social support on women's participation in sport activities. Journal of Sport and Motional Sciences, 7, 53-62 (Persian).
- Vilhjamsson, R., & Thorlindsson, T. (1998). Factors related to physical activity: a study of an adolescents, Journal social science and medicine, 47(5), 665-75.
- Weigand, D. A., Carr, S., Petherick, C., and Taylor, A. (2014). Motivational Climate in Sport and Physical Education: The Role of Significant Others, European Journal of Sport Science, 1(4), 1-13.
- Weiss, M.R., Dancan, S. C. (1990). The Relation between physical competence and peer acceptance in the context of children’s sports participation. Journal of sport and Exercise Psychology, 14(2), 177-91.
- Welk, G. J., Wood, K., Morss, G. (2003). Parental influences activity in children: An exploration of potential mechanisms. Pediatric exercise science, 15(1), 19-33.
- Yarcheski, A., Mahon, N. E., Yarcheski, T. J. (2002). Anger in adolescent boys and girls with manifestation nursing research, Nursing Research, 51(4), 229-36.
- Yekaninejad, M. S., Akaberi, A., and Pakpour, A. (2012). Factors associated with physical activity in adolescents in Qazvin: an application of the theory of planned behavior, Journal of North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, 4(3), 449-56 (Persian).
- Yousefi, B., and Ahmadi, B. (2013). The effect of physical educators’ autonomy-supportive behaviors on enjoyment of physical activity in adolescent girls: (Psychological needs and intrinsic motivation mediating role), Journal of Sport Psychology Studies, 5, 41-54 (Persian).
- Zyiapor, A., & Kyanpor, N. (1391). The impact of patterns of participation in sport activities (Experimental study of Azad University students of Kermanshah city), Journal of Sociology of Youth Studies, 3(6), 91-108.