Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. student of Sport Management, Razi University

2 Associate Professor of Sport Management, Razi University

3 Assistant Professor of Sport Management, Razi University


Good governance provides mechanisms to monitor performance and achieve goals in organizations. So the purpose of this study was to investigate the state of governance and the effect of social capital on good governance indicators in sports federations. The statistical population consisted all of the senior sports boards in west states. Simple random sampling method and sample size were 224 people. Participants completed good governance (researcher made) and social capital questionnaires. Validity and reliability of the for data analysis, one-sample t-test and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) were used. Measurement model were confirmed. The results of single-sample t-test showed that the level of good governance (2.58 ± 0.81) and social capital (2.64 ± 0.67) in the studied society were lower than average. The Structural equation modeling revealed that social capital effected on aspects good governance including transparency (β=0.85), democracy (β=0.79), check and balances (β=0.92), and solidarity (β=0.75), In. addition, social capital also explains 0.47 good governance variances. The results of this study provided factors affecting on sports governance in order to prioritize actions to improve good governance in sports federations.


Main Subjects

1. Ahmadi, S. A., & Feizabadi, H. (2011). Investigating social capital and effect of that on the organization improvement (Case study: Staff organizations of Tehran municipality). Journal of Public Administration, 3(6), 35-88. (Persian).
2. Alm, J. (2013). Action for good governance in international sports organisations. Final report. Copenhagen: Play the game/ Danish institute for sports studies, 6-22.
3. Alvani, S. M. (2009). Good governance: A network of civil society interactors. Journal Development Evolution Management, 1(1), 1-6. (Persian)
4. Andrew, R. (2010). Organizational social capital structure and performance. Human Relations, 63(5), 583–608.
5. Bebchuk, L., Cohen, A., & Wang, C. (2013). Learning and the disappearing association between governance and returns. Journal of Financial Economics, 108, 323–48.
6. Bovens, M. (2007). Analysing and assessing accountability: A conceptual framework. European Law Journal, 13(4), 447–68.
7. Chappelet, J. L., & Mrkonjic, M. (2013). Basic indicators for better governance in international sport (Bibgis): An assessment tool for international sport governing bodies. Idheap Working Paper, 1, 7-16.
8. Chappelet, J. L., & Mabbott, B. (2008). The international Olympic committee and the Olympic system: The governance of world sport. Abingdon: Routledge.
9. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. (2nd Ed), Hillsdale, New Jersey.
10. Forster, J., & Pope, N. (2004). The political economy of global sporting organisations. Abingdon: Routledge.
11. Geeraert, A. (2015). Sports governance observer 2015, the legitimacy crisis in international sports governance. Report/ October, 5-38.
12. Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7th Ed): Upper Saddle River, Prentice hall, New Jersey.
13. Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sinkovics, R. R. (2009). The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing. Advances in International Marketing, 20, 277-320.
14. International Olympic Committee. (2008). Basic universal principles of good governance of the Olympic and sports movement. Preliminary Document. Lausanne: PP: 1-12.
15. Jarvie, G. (2003). Communitarianism, sport and social capital neighbourly insights into Scottish sport. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 38(2), 139-53.
16. Kamberidou, I., & Patsadaras, N. (2007). A new concept in European sport governance: Sport as social capital. Journal of Biology of Exercise, 3, 21-34.
17. Kardos, M. (2012). The reflection of good governance in sustainable development Strategies. Procedia -Social and Behavioral Sciences, 58, 1166-1173.
18. Lawshe, C. (1975). A qualitative approach to content validity. Personnel Psychology, 28(8), 563-75.
19. Mahmody, J., Rounagi, M, S., & Rounagi, M. (2014). Weighting the indices of good governance in Iran. Strategic Studies Quarterly, 16(62), 59-87. (Persian).
20. Maloney, W., Smith, G., & Stoker, G. (2000). Social capital and urban governance: Adding a more contextualized ‘top-down’ perspective. Political Studies, 48, 802–20.
21. Mohamadi Torkamani, E., Bagheri, G, H., & Zaereimatin, H. (2016). Designing the model of bridging social capital promotion for Football fans. Social Capital Management, 3(1), 89-111. (Persian).
22. Mostafazadeh, M., & Sadeghi, M. R. (2015). The model of social capital development in universities and higher education centers. Social Capital Management, 2(1), 161-82. (Persian).
23. Nahapiet, J., & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organizational advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23(2), 242-66.
24. Nikpeyma, N., Saeedi, Z, A., Azargashb, E., & Alavi Majd, H. (2013). Framework approach: A method for analysis of qualitative data. Journal of the Iranian Institute for Health Sciences Research, 13(1), 41-50. (Persian).
25. OECD (OrganiZation for Economic Co-operation and Development). (2004). Principles of corporate governance. Paris: OECD. pp. 12-50.
26. Paxton, P. (2002). Social capital and democracy: An interdependent relationship. American Sociological Review, 67, 245-77.
27. Phillips, A. (2011). What should be in a ‘good governance code’ for European team sport federations? Unpublished thesis. Executive Master in European Sport Governance (MESGO).
28. Play The Game. (2011). Cologne Consensus: towards a global code for governance in sport. End statement of the conference, Play the Game 2011 conference, 6 October 2011, Cologne
29. Putnam, R. D. (1993). Making democracy work. CivictTraditions in modern Italy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
30. Ritter, T. (2013). Social capital as a determinant for good governance: An empirical analysis of the 27 EU member state- Presented at EGPA Annual Conference, Edinburgh Scotland.
31. Salahi, R., Namati, M., & Amanpur, S. (2014). Effective mechanism of social capital indicators in the good urban governance using Amos (Case study: City Nasim city). Journal of Spatial Planning, 4(1), 1-24. (Persian).
32. Schumacker, R, E. (2010). A beginner's guide to structural equation modeling. (V. Ghasemi, Translator). Tehran: Sociologists Publications. (Persian).
33. Thomas, M. (2009). What do the worldwide governance indicators measure? Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 16(1), 5-22.
34. Transparency International. (2011). Safe hands: Building integrity and transparency at FIFA. Berlin: Transparency International.
35. Union of European Football Associations UEFA. (2011). Good governance menu card for UEFA member associations 2012-2016. Nyon: UEFA.
36. Umerato, D., & Baglioni, S. (2011). The dark side of social capital: An ethnography of sport governance. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 10, 1-18.
37. United Nations Development Programme. (2000). Characteristics of good governance. Available at: /govindex.htm [Accessed 10 December 2016].
38. Walters. G., Trenberth. L., & Tacon, R. (2010). Good governance in sport: A survey of UK national governing bodies of sport. London: Birk Beck Sport Business Centre.
39. Weiss, T. G. (2000). Governance, good governance and global goverrnance, conceptual and actual challenges. Third World Quarterly, 21(5), 795-815.