Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor of sport Management, Department of sport management and media, Faculty of sport science and health, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

2 Ph.D. in sport management, Faculty of physical education and sport science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 Ph.D. in sport management, Faculty of physical education and sport science, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran


In recent years, international organizations have put forth various programs in way of creating an inclusive world. One of the programs which has recently been introduced by the International Paralympic Committee and has also been implemented in Iran is the "I’mPOSSIBLE" global program. This program aims to change young people's attitude toward people with disabilities. Thus, the main objective of the current study was to identify the impact of the implementation of the "I’mPOSSIBLE" program on changing the attitude of primary school students toward inclusive sport. The present study was of an applied and semi-experimental type. The statistical sample consisted of 50 sixth grade students who were put into two groups of 25 control and experimental students. The experimental group was trained in three sessions in accordance with the "I’mPOSSIBLE" program. The measurement tools included a questionnaire designed to assess children's attitude toward inclusive sport (Block, 1995) and an adjective checklist (Siperstein, 2006) in way of evaluating the cognitive attitude that used the pre-test and post-test design to obtain data. The questionnaires were given to both groups before and after the implementation of the program. To analyze the variables, the mixed model analysis, the independent T, the follow-up extrapolation as well as the Wilcoxon tests were used. The results indicated that the program had a significant effect on changing the students' attitudes toward inclusive sport. It is suggested that the "I’mPOSSIBLE" program be included in the physical education (PE) curriculum and be implemented continuously in the primary schools in Iran. By implementing this program in schools, a large number of the existing restrictions for people with disabilities in society will be eliminated in addition to improving and promoting a positive attitude towards people with disabilities and their integration into the society.


Main Subjects

  1. Abdollahpour, M., & Golzari, M. (2009). Investigation of the effect of life skill training on attitude towards substance abuse in sirjan city high school students. Research on Addiction, 2(8): 33-54. (Persian).
  2. Allport, G. W., Clark, K., & Pettigrew, T. (1954). The nature of prejudice, , New York:  Doubleday Anchor
  3. Archie, V. W., & Sherrill, C. (1989). Attitudes toward handicapped peers of mainstreamed and nonmainstreamed children in physical education. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 69(1): 319-322.
  4. Black, K., & Williamson, D. (2017). Designing inclusive physical activities and games. In Design for sport (pp. 229-264),England: Routledge.
  5. Block, M. (2000). A teacher’s guide to including students with disabilities in regular physical education., Maryland: Brookes Publishing Co.
  6. Block, M. E. (1995). Development and validation of the children’s attitudes toward integrated physical education–revised (CAIPE–R) inventory. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 12(1): 60-77.
  7. Booth, T., & Ainscow, M. (2002). Index for inclusion: developing learning and participation in schools (2nd edn), Bristol: Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education (CSIE) .
  8. Causton, J. (2014). The principal's handbook for leading inclusive schools, Maryland: Brookes Publishing Co.
  9. Chen, C.-C. J., Ryuh, Y.-J., Fang, Q., Lee, Y., & Kim, M.-L. (2019). The Effects of Inclusive Soccer Program on Motor Performance and Sport Skill in Young Adults with and without Intellectual Disabilities. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 31(4): 487-499.
  10. Choi, P. H. N., & Cheung, S. Y. (2019). Inclusive Sand-Shoeing Training Program for Students with and without Intellectual Disabilities in Hong Kong. ICHPER-SD Journal of Research, 10(2): 3-7.
  11. Craig, P. J., Barcelona, B., Aytur, S., Amato, J., & Young, S. J. (2019). Using Inclusive Sport for Social Change in Malawi, Africa. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 53(3): 244-263.
  12. Dattilo, J. (1996). Inclusive Leisure Services: Responding to the Rights of People with Disabilities. Journal of Leisure Research, 28(4): 312.
  13. DePauw, K. P., & Doll-Tepper, G. (2000). Toward progressive inclusion and acceptance: Myth or reality? The inclusion debate and bandwagon discourse. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 17(2): 135-143.
  14. Ješina, O., Lucas, S., Kudláček, M., Janečka, Z., Machová, I., & Wittmannová, J. (2006). Effect of an intervention program on attitude of elementary school children toward inclusion of children with disability,8th European Conference of Adapted Physical Activity, Olomouc, Rep. Checa.
  15. Kalymon, K., Gettinger, M., & Hanley-Maxwell, C. (2008). Middle school boys’ perspectives on social relationships with peers with disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 31(4): 305-316.
  16. Katz, D. (1960). The functional approach to the study of attitudes. Public opinion quarterly, 24(2): 163-204.
  17. Lee, , Narasaki-Jara, M., Park, J., Lai, B., Davis, R., & Oh, J. (2020). The Long-term Effect of a Paralympic Sports Class on Korean High School Students’ Attitudes towards Peers with Disabilities and Perceptions of Their Human Rights. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 67(1):1-13.
  18. limoochi, S., Moshref Javadi, B., Safania, A., Mohamadi, F. (2020). Identification of Effective Factors on the Participation of the People with Disabilities in Sport Activities. Contemporary Studies On Sport Management , 9(18): 77-90. doi: 10.22084/smms.2020.20907.2513 (Persian)
  19. Lindstrom, H. (1992). Integration of sport for athletes with disabilities into sport programmes for able-bodied athletes. Palaestra, 8(3): 28-32.
  20. Little, M. (1990). Acceptance and access by accentuation of ability Adapted Physical Activity (pp. 137-143), Berlin:Springer.
  21. Liu, Y., Kudláček, M., & Ješina, O. (2010). The influence of Paralympic School Day on children's attitudes towards people with disabilities. Acta Gymnica, 40(2): 63-69.
  22. McKay, C., Haegele, J., & Block, M. (2019). Lessons learned from Paralympic School Day: Reflections from the students. European Physical Education Review, 25(3): 745-760.
  23. McKay, C., & Park, J. Y. (2019). The Impact of Paralympic Skill Lab on College Student Cognitive Attitudes toward Inclusive Lifetime Sport and Fitness. International Journal of Kinesiology in Higher Education, 3(3): 67-76.
  24. McKay, C., Park, J. Y., & Block, M. (2018a). Exploring the variables associated with student attitudes toward inclusion in physical education after taking part in the Paralympic School Day programme. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 25(2): 1-19.
  25. McKay, C., Park, J. Y., & Block, M. (2018b). Fidelity criteria development: Aligning Paralympic school day with contact theory. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 35(2): 233-242.
  26. Moon, M. S. (1994). Making School and Community Recreation Fun for Everyone: Places and Ways To Integrate: ERIC.
  27. Nadri, A. (2019). Investigating Obstacles of Participation in Physical Activities and Exercise among the Disabled of Kermanshah Province. Journal of Sport Management and Motor Behavior, 16(31): 152-137. doi: 10.22080/jsmb.2019.10795.2453 (Persian)
  28. Panagiotou, A. K., Evaggelinou, C., Doulkeridou, A., Mouratidou, K., & Koidou, E. (2008). Attitudes of 5th and 6th grade Greek student toward the inclusion of children with disabilities in physical education classes after a Paralympic education program. European Journal of Adapted Physical Activity, 1(2): 31-43
  29. Qi, J., & Ha, A. S. (2012). Inclusion in physical education: A review of literature. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 59(3): 257-281.
  30. Reynolds, R. (1993). Recreation and leisure lifestyle changes. The ADA mandate for social change. Maryland: Brooks Publcation Co.
  31. Sherrill, C. (1998). Adapted physical activity, recreation and sport, Boston:ERIC
  32. Siperstein, G. (2006). Adjective checklist (ACL). Boston: Center for Social Development and Education, University of Massachusetts
  33. Taherian, M., Rasouli, M. R., & Abuhamzeh, A. (2017). The Effect of Educational Movies on Changing The Attitude of High School student in Damavand Toward drug Abuse. Media Studies, 12(1): 36-37 (Persian)
  34. United Nations Educational. (2008). International conference on education, 48th session, Geneva.
  35. Wilhite, B., Mushett, C. A., Goldenberg, L., & Trader, B. R. (1997). Promoting inclusive sport and leisure participation: Evaluation of the Paralympic Day in the schools model. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 14(2): 131-146.
  36. Zahirinia, M. (2011). An Survey of Personal and Social Consequences of Disability. Cultural Journal of Hormozgan, 1(1): 162-180.(Persian).