Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor of Sports Management, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad

2 Ph.D. student in Sports Management, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad

3 Master student of sports management, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad


The aim of this study was to identify the mental patterns of experts regarding the effective factors to increase the level of media literacy of physical education teachers in virtual education. The present study was applied from the perspective of purpose and of mixed type with the framework of interpretive-positivist paradigm. In the first stage, library resources, writing, articles and interviews with 21 sports management specialists, physical education teachers, experts, assistants and education managers of Mashhad city were used to identify the terms Q. After this stage, it was time to identify the mentalities with a quantitative method and with the help of Q factor analysis technique. In the present study, the number of participants was 26 who arranged the Q expressions. Findings identified five mental patterns of skill-seekers, feature-seekers, educators, specialists and individual factors that are effective in increasing the level of media literacy of physical education teachers. It was generally concluded that a prioritization or continuum could be given to the identified mental patterns. In order to develop media literacy, first of all, the mental model of educators should be considered. The mental model of the possessors can also be prioritized, and both the mental model of the specialist and the individual factors can be put on the same level, because the specialization will occur when the previous factors are observed. In a general conclusion, it should be stated that teachers should be encouraged to use new methods of physical education teaching in order to increase media literacy


Ameri, M., H., Kashif, M., M., Mohsenianfar, H. (2012). Internet and its role in sports management. Development of Physical Education, 38: 7-12. (Persian)
2.Amiri, J., Zabolzida, A., Karimi, S. (2019). Solutions for Increasing Teachers' Media and Information Literacy. Media Studies, 14(46): 7-22. (Persian)
3.Banihashem. S.K. (2018). Comparison and study of media literacy and information literacy among male and female students. Media Studies, 12(3): 115-126.
4.Darabi, H., Goodarzi, M., Kazemnezhad, A., Hamidi, M. (2012). Investigating the role of information technology on the implementation of knowledge management in Iranian public physical education schools. Physiology and Management Research in Sport, 7: 7-19. (Persian)
5.fathabadi, B., dadgaran, M., nasiri, B., hashemi, S. (2020). Factors influencing the promotion of media literacy education in schools from the point of view of experts from the European Commission. Interdisciplinary Studies in Media and Culture, 9(2): 167-190. (Persian)
6.Jeong, H. C., & So, W. Y. (2020). Difficulties of online physical education classes in middle and high school and an efficient operation plan to address them. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(19): 7279.‏
7.Haghshenas, M, Parsajo, M. (2018). A Study on Media Literacy Education in Iran and Developed Countries, Fourth International Conference on Humanities and Education, Tehran. (Persian)
8.Hoseyni Pakdehi, A., Shobeyri, H. (2017). Media Literacy Education in Cyberspace A case study of Canadian website “Media Smarts” and Iranian website “Media Literacy”. New Media Studies, 3(9): 31-76
9.Boumadan, M., Soto-Varela, R., Ortiz-Padilla, M., & Poyatos-Dorado, C. (2020). What factors determine the value of an online teacher education experience from a teacher’s perspective?. Sustainability, 12(19): 8064.‏
10.Nasiri B, Bakhshi B, Hashemi S.M. (2011). The importance of media literacy education in the 21st century. Media studies,7(3): 157-166. (Persian)
11.Nopembri, S., Saryono, A., & Muktiani, N. R. (2020). Literacy of Physical Education Teachers on ICT-based Instructional Media.‏
12.Savagpun, P. (2020). The New Normal of a Physical Education Classroom Model With The Covid-19 Revolution,” Journal of Education Naresuan University, 22(3): 351-357.              
13.Pérez Tornero, J. M. (2013). ABC… media literacy white paper. European media literacy: selected texts from studies.
14.Hobbs, R. (2006). Reconceptualizing media literacy for the digital age. Martin, A. és Madigan, D.(szerk.): Digital literacies for learning. Facet, London, 99-109.‏
15.Rababah, J. (2021). The Impact of Using Imperative, Praising and Comprehensive Ways on Learning the Skill of Serve in Volleyball among the Students of Taibah University. , 40(191), 481-506.
16.Razavi, M., Loghmani, M., Razzaqi, M., E., Manouchehri Nejad, M. (2014). Factor analysis of barriers to the use of information technology in the physical education course of primary schools. Applied Research in Sports Management, Third Year, 2 (10): 115-126. (Persian)
17.Rezapour, F., Moharramzadeh, M. (2021). Developing an Efficiency Model for Virtual Educational Plan of Physical Education in Schools (Case Study: Covid-19 Pandemic). Research on Educational Sport, 9(23): 99-128. (Persian)
18.Khan, S., Rabbani, R. M., Thalassinos, I. E., & Atif, M. (2020). Corona virus pandemic paving ways to next generation of learning and teaching: Futuristic cloud based educational model.
19.Tejedor, S., Cervi, L., Pérez-Escoda, A., Tusa, F., & Parola, A. (2021). Higher education response in the time of coronavirus: perceptions of teachers and students, and open innovation. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, 7(1), 43.‏
20.Salimi, S., Fardin, M, A. (2020). The Role of Corona Virus in Virtual Education, with an Emphasis on Opportunities and Challenges. Research in School and Virtual Learning, 8, )2( (30): 49-60. (Persian)
21.Sánchez, J., Salinas, Á., & Harris, J. (2011). Education with Ict in South Korea and chile. International Journal of Educational Development, 31(2): 126-148.‏
22.Sharifi Rahnemo, M., and Seraji, F., Sharifi Rahnemo, S. (2019). Media literacy needs of undergraduate students. Higher Education Curriculum Studies, 9 (18): 71-93. (Persian)
23.Sharifi, S., Karami Namivandi, S. (2018). Investigating the dimensions of media and information literacy education in the formal and public education system of the country. Religion and Communication, 25 (2( (54): 111-140. (Persian)
24.Ali, W. (2020). Online and remote learning in higher education institutes: A necessity in light of COVID-19 pandemic. Higher education studies, 10(3): 16-25.‏