Document Type : Research Paper
PhD Student of Sports Management, Kish International Campus, University of Tehran,Kish, Iran
Associate Professor of Sports Management, University of Tehran, Iran
Assistant Professor of Sports Management, Kish International Campus University of Tehran, Iran
Professor of Sport Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of empowerment on self-efficacy and job performance of physical education teachers. The research method was quantitative and the target population of the study consisted of 27530 physical education teachers in the country. Using Krejcie and Morgan sampling table, 380 physical education teachers, 188 male and 192 female, were selected as the sample population. The random sampling method was one-stage cluster. To collect data from three questionnaires of empowerment of physical education teachers adapted from two questionnaires of staff empowerment of Rokni Lemoki (2013) and the questionnaire of improving job performance of staff of Awamle (2013), self-efficacy questionnaire adapted from the self-efficacy questionnaire teachers’ self-efficacy of Bandura (2006), the teachers’ job performance questionnaire was taken from the teachers' job performance questionnaire of Amin, Shah, Ayaz and Ata (2013). Data analysis was performed at both descriptive and inferential levels using SPSS21 software and LISREL8 software. The results showed that the value of standard regression coefficient between empowerment and self-efficacy of teachers is 0.56 with a significant coefficient of t = 7.02, which indicates a significant and direct effect of empowerment on self-efficacy of physical education teachers in the country. The results also showed that the standard regression coefficient between empowerment and job performance of teachers was 0.53 with a significance coefficient of t = 8.87, which also showed that empowerment had a significant and direct effect on the job performance of physical education teachers in the country. Therefore, it can be concluded that if the capabilities of physical education teachers increase, it can improve the self-efficacy and job performance of physical education teachers.
- Afsharnezhad, T.; Hemmatinezhad, M.A., & Ramazaninezhad, R. (2005). Investigating the effect of participation in scientific-specialized competitions on the professional performance of physical education teachers, Master's thesis, Faculty of Physical Education, University of Guilan. (Persian)
- Ahmed, N. & Malik, B. (2020). Impact of Psychological Empowerment on Job Performance of Teachers: Mediating Role of Psychological Well-being. Review of Economics and Development Studies(READS), 5(3): 451-460. doi:26710/reads.v5i3.693
- Aktop, A. & Karahan, N. (2012). Physical education teachers views of effective teaching methods in physical education, Procardia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46:1910 – 1913.
- Allami, F. B. Fauzee, M. S. O. Sin, I. (2017). The Relationship between Physical Education Teacher’s Self-efficacy and Job Satisfaction in Iraq Physical Education Colleges. International Journal of Innovative Research and Development, 6(8): 8-13.
- Amin, M.; Shah, R.; Ayaz, M.; & Atta, M. (2013). Teachers’ job performance at secondary school level in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Gomal University Journal of Research, 29(2): 100-104.
- Anarinezhad, A. & Abdollahi, N. (2015). Assessing the relationship between in-service training and self-efficacy of physical education teachers in Fars province, the first national conference on sports and physical education in Iran, electronically, the Association for the Development and Promotion of Basic Sciences and Techniques. (Persian)
- Arash, O.R., & Eslamfar, M. (2016). Investigating the Relationship between In-Service Training and Self-Efficacy of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province Physical Education Teachers. Second National Conference on Modern Sciences and Technologies of Iran, Tehran, Association for the Development and Promotion of Fundamental Science and Technology. (Persian)
- Awamle, N. AHK. (2103). Enhancing Employees Performance via Empowerment: A Field Survey. Asian Journal of Business Management, 5(3): 313-319. doi: org/10.19026/ajbm.5.5328
- Azizifar, A.; Naghipour, S.; Mohamadian, F.; Veisani, Y.; Cheraghi, F.; & Aibod, S. (2020). Investigating the relationship between iranian EFL teachers' empowerment and their self-efficacy as a consequence for their educational improvement. Journal of Education and Health Promotion, 9(80): 1-11. doi: 10.4103/jehp.jehp_354_19
- Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: an argentic perspective. Annual review ofpsychology, 52(1): 1-26.
- Bandura, A. (2006). Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Adolescents, Guide for Constructing Self-Efficacy Scales, Chap. 14: 307-337.
- Blaskovaa, M.; Blaskoa, R.; Figurskab, I.; & Sokolc, A. (2015). Motivation and Development of the University Teachers’ Motivational Competence. Procardia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 182: 116–126.
- Birgit, S.; & Sabine, S. (2010). Leadership attributes valence in self-concept and occupational self-efficacy. Career Development International, 15(1): 78 – 92.
- Braga, L.; Jones, E.; Bulger, S.; & Elliott, E. (2017). Empowering teachers to implement innovative content in physical education through continuous professional development. Teacher Development, 21(2): 288-306.
- Çiftçi, E., & Karaman, A. (2019). Short-Term International Experiences in Language Teacher Education: A Qualitative Meta-Synthesis. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 44(1).
- Clotfelter, C. T.; Ladd, H. F.; & Vigdor, J. L. (2007). Teacher credentials and student achievement: Longitudinal analysis with student fixed effects, Economics of Education Review, 26(6): 673-682.
- Dehghani, A.; Daghighi Asli, A., & Pourvali, F. (2015). Investigating the effect of in-service training on the ability and job performance of employees in an insurance company. Insurance Journal, 2: 35-60. (Persian)
- D'Innocenzo, L., Mathieu, J. E., & Kukenberger, M. R. (2016). A meta-analysis of different forms of shared leadership–team performance relations. Journal of Management, 42(7): 1964–1991. org/10.1177/0149206314525205
- Esfandiyari, M.R., & Mohsenini, Sh. (2014). Structural equations based on the partial least squares approach using Smart-PLS software: educational and practical. Tehran: Mehraban Book Publishing Institute. (Persian)
- Gunawan, E., Djaali, D., & Sudiardhita, I. K. R. (2017). The effect of empowerment, self efficacy and job satisfaction on job performance of rmployees in the ministry of finance’s procurement entities. IJHCM (International Journal of Human Capital Management), 1(01): 44-55. doi.org/10.21009/IJHCM.01.01.05
- Gravenkemper, S. (2016). Employee involvement: Practitioner perspective. In M. J. Grawitch & D. W. Ballard (Eds). The psychologically healthy workplace: Building w win-win environment for organizations and employees (pp. 35-58). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Ha, AS.; Lonsdale, C.; Lubans, D R.; & Ng , J YY. (2017). Increasing students' physical activity during school physical education: Rationale and protocol for the SELF-FIT cluster randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health, 18(11): 1-12. doi: 10.1186/s12889-017-4553-8.
- Habibpour, K., & Safari Shali, R. (2012). Comprehensive guide to the use of SPSS in survey research (quantitative data analysis). Tehran: Loyeh, Motafakeran. (Persian)
- Hami, M.; Ebrahimzadeh, A.; & Davarpanah, R. (2016). Influence of in-service training courses, organizational commitment and performance of physical education teachers in Babol city, 4th National Conference on New Achievements in Sports Sciences, Gorgan, Islamic Azad University, Gorgan Branch. (Persian)
- Hamidi, H.; Rajabi Noush Abadi, H.; Alidoust Ghahfarokhi, E.; Zeini Zadeh, M.; Designing Strategic Plan for Student Sport Federation of Iran, Research on Educational Sport, 6(14): 67-92. DOI: 22089/RES.2017.3874.1268 (Persian)
- Hancer, M.; & George, T. (2013). Psychological empowerment of non-supervisory employees working in full-service restaurants, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 22: 3-16.
- Hasanabadi, S. (2013).Designing a Strategic Model for Empowering Nahaja Technical Staff, PhD Thesis, Tehran, Higher National Defense University, Faculty of National Defense. (Persian)
- Keri, D. M. (2016). Analyzing Relationships Among Principal Instructional Leadership, Teacher Empowerment, Teacher Creative Practices and Student Creative Practice, A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate School University of Arkansas at Little Rock.
- Liden, R. C.; Wayne, S. J.; & Sparrowe, R. T. (2000). An examination of the mediating role of psychological empowerment on the relations between the job, interpersonal relationships, and work outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(3): 407-416.
- Maleki Sadeghi, F., & Arban, Sh. (2017). Investigating the Relationship between Psychological Empowerment and Job Performance of Secondary School Women Teachers in Khorramabad, First International Conference on Social Sciences, Humanities and Psychology Education, Tehran, Koosha International Company. (Persian)
- Mirsepasi, N. (2005). Strategic human resource management and labor relations "With a view to the process of globalization". Tehran: Ketab Sara, Mir. (Persian)
- Mostahfezian, M.; Khodaei, Z., & Rahbari, S. (2018). The Study effectiveness of virtual in-service training periods on job performance of physical education's teachers. Journal of Sport Management and Motor Behavior, 14(28): 183-194.
doi: 10.22080/jsmb.2018.10465.2405. (Persian)
- Noe, Roymond, A.; Hollen beck, J.; Gerhart, B.; & wright, Patrick. M. (2011). Human resource management. MC . Graw- Hill.
- Pearce, C. L., Sims H. P., Cox, J. F., Ball, G., Schnell, E. & Smith, K. A. (2003). Transactors, transformers and beyond, A multi-method development of a theoretical typology of leadership. Journal of Management Development, 22(4): 273-307.
- Perman, S.; Turner, S.; Ramsay, A I.; Baim-Lance, A.; Utley, M.; & Fulop, N J. (2017). School-based vaccination programmes: A systematic review of the evidence on organisation and delivery in high income countries. BMC Public Health. 17(252):1-11. Doi:10.1186/s12889-017-4168-0
- Recepoğlu, E. (2014). Analyzing job motivation level of high school teachers in Turkey. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116: 2220-2225.
- Rokni Lomoki, F. (2013). Investigating the relationship between servant leadership and organizational trust and empowering employees in Mazandaran Gas Company. Master’s Thesis in Public Administration, Human Resources, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Allameh Tabatabai University. (Persian)
- Saki, R., Nematti, H., & Rezaei. M. (2014). Investigating the relationship between empowerment and self-efficacy with teachers’ job performance in girls' high schools in Tehran. Technical and Vocational Educatiin, 5(5): 32-51. (Persian)
- Salmani Dastjerd, E.; Hematinezhad, M.A., & Rahmaninia, F. (2008). The relationship between in-service training and self-efficacy of physical education teachers. Harakat, 37: 193-204. (Persian)
- Selamat, N.; Samsu, N.Z.; & Mustafa Kamalu, N. S. (2013). The impact of organizationalclimate on teachers’ job performance. Educational research, 2(1):
- Shahzadehh Teimourpor, H., Khodayari, A., Alidoust Gahfarokhi, E., & oorbaksh, M. (2018). Identifying the effective factors on empowerment of physical education teachers: A case study of East Azerbaijan province. 4th National Conference on Sports Science and Physical Education of Iran. Tehran, Iran (Persian)
- Shahzadeh Teimourpor, H., Khodayari, A., Noorbaksh, M., & Alidoust Gahfarokhi, E. (2020). Developing an Empowerment Mdel of Physical Education Teachers with Emphasis of I.R Iran's 1404 Vision Document. Research on Educational Sport, 8(18): 91-112. (Persian). DOI: 10.22089/res.2017.4387.1322
- ShirMohammadzadeh, M., & Ghorbani, S. (2018). The Relationship between Psychological Empowerment and Effectiveness of Physical Education Teachers in Bonab County, 4th National Conference on Sports Science and Physical Education, Iran, Tehran,: Association for the Development and Promotion of Basic Sciences and Techniques. (Persian)
- Sumarno, A. (2011). Influence analysis of teacher empowerment against performance improve the quality of education in the elementary school in Su rabaya. A master thesis of human resource management, University State of Surabaya.
- Susan, M.; & Broniarczyk, G. (2015). Decision Difficulty in the Age of Consumer Empowerment, Journal of Consumer Psychology, 24(4): 608-625.
- Zohrabi, H.; Shahlaei, J.; Salman, Z., & Bagheri, M. (2011). Relationship between in-service training and performance of physical education teachers in Fars province, 6th National Conference of Physical Education and Sports Science Students of Iran, Tehran, Research Institute of Physical Education and Sports Sciences. (Persian)