Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD student of Curriculum Development, Department of Curriculum Studies, Kharazmi University, Faculty Member of Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Curriculum Studies, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Curriculum Studies, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

4 Associate Professor, Department of Sport Management, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran



The purpose of the study was to identify the challenges in implementing the physical education and health curriculum in first level secondary school, based on Aker Model. The research method was a descriptive-survey one. The statistical population included the experts (university professors and curriculum authors), and the teachers of the public high schools in Tehran. The sample was comprised of 18 specialists selected based on a purposive sampling, 88 female teachers selected based on a multi-stage cluster sampling through Morgan's table and 39 scholars selected based on a convenience sampling. The instrument was a researcher-made questionnaire that was developed according to the Aker mode. The ostensible and content validity was confirmed by 8 scholars and the reliability was calculated as 0.97, based on Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Data analysis was done in descriptive and inferiority sections, including single-sample Wilcoxon signed test, Kruskal-Wallis rank analysis and U-Mann Whitney test. The findings showed that the challenges include a diverse range of curriculum components, as learning space, time, content, goals, teacher role, and materials and resources. Based on the findings, it is suggested that the policymakers and the decision-makers of the physical education curriculum coordinate the curriculum components with the goals, improve the educational environment and adapt teaching time to resolve the identified weaknesses.


Main Subjects

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